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FOOD INFORMATION

 

Calcium: Calcium is the most abundant of all the essential minerals in the human body. Calcium helps the body form bones and teeth and is required for blood clotting, transmitting signals in nerve cells, and muscle contraction. Calcium helps prevent osteoporosis; of the two to three pounds of calcium contained in the human body, 99% is located in the bones and teeth.

Calcium also seems to play a role in lowering blood pressure, and has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

 

Calorie: Calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. One calorie is formally defined as the amount of energy required to raise one cubic centimeter of water by one degree Centigrade. For purpose of measuring the amount of energy in food, nutritionists most commonly use kilocalories (equal to 1000 calories), and label the measurement either as "kcal" or as "Calories" with a capital "C". One kcal is also equivalent to approximately 4.184 kilojoules.

 

Cholesterol: Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance present in all parts of the body including the nervous system, skin, muscle, liver, intestines and heart. It is both made by the body and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver for normal body functions including the production of hormones, bile acid and Vitamin D. It is transported in the blood to be used by all parts of the body.

In the blood stream, cholesterol combines with fatty acids to form high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins. LDL's are considered the "bad cholesterol", since they can stick together to form plaque deposits on the walls of your blood vessels, leading to atherosclerosis.

 

Dietary Fiber: Dietary fiber comes from the thick cell wall of plants. It is an indigestible complex carbohydrate. Fiber is divided into two general categories: water soluble and water insoluble.

Soluble fiber has been shown to lower cholesterol. For unknown reasons, diets higher in insoluble fiber (mostly unrelated to cholesterol levels) have been shown to correlate better with protection against heart disease in human trials. Soluble fibers can also lower blood sugar levels, and some doctors believe that increasing fiber decreases the body need for insulin good sign for diabetics.

Insoluble fiber acts as a stool softener, which speeds digestion through the intestinal tract. For this reason, insoluble fiber is an effective treatment for constipation. The reduction in "transit time" has also been thought to partially explain the link between a high fiber diet and a reduced risk of colon cancer.

 

Iron: Iron is one of the human body essential minerals. It forms part of hemoglobin, the component of the blood that carries oxygen throughout the body. People with iron-poor blood tire easily because their bodies are starved for oxygen. Iron is also part of myoglobin, which helps muscles store oxygen. With insufficient iron, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; the fuel the body runs on) cannot be properly synthesized. As a result, some iron-deficient people can become fatigued even when they are not anemic.

 

Protein: Protein is one of the basic components of food and makes all life possible. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All of the antibodies and enzymes, and many of the hormones in the body are proteins. They provide for the transport of nutrients, oxygen and waste throughout the body. They provide the structure and contracting capability of muscles. They also provide collagen to connective tissues of the body and to the tissues of the skin, hair and nails.

 

Potassium: Potassium is an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, levels of acidity and blood pressure. Potassium, together with sodium-potassium inside the cell and sodium in the fluid surrounding the cell, work together for the nervous system to transmit messages as well as regulating the contraction of muscles.Potassium is also required for carbohydrate and protein metabolism.

 

Phosphorus: Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is usually found in nature combined with oxygen as phosphate. Most phosphate in the human body is in bone, but phosphate-containing molecules (phospholipids) are also important components of cell membranes and lipoprotein particles, such as good (HDL) and bad (LDL) cholesterol. Small amounts of phosphate are engaged in biochemical reactions throughout the body.

The role of phosphate-containing molecules in aerobic exercise reactions has suggested that phosphate loading might enhance athletic performance, though controlled research has produced inconsistent results.

 

Sodium: Sodium is a mineral, an essential nutrient. It helps to maintain blood volume, regulate the balance of water in the cells, and keeps nerves functioning. The kidneys control sodium balance by increasing or decreasing sodium in the urine. One teaspoon of salt contains about 2,300 milligrams of sodium, more than four times the amount the body requires per day.

Many foods contain sodium naturally, and it is commonly added to foods during preparation or processing or as a flavoring agent. Sodium is also found in drinking water, prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications. Sodium intake is only one of the factors known to affect high blood pressure, and not everyone is equally susceptible. The sensitivity to sodium seems to be very individualized. Usually, the older one is the more sensitive they are to salt

 

Vitamin A (Retinol): Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin with multiple functions in the body. It helps cells differentiate, an essential part of cell reproduction. Cells that are not fully differentiated are more likely to undergo pre-cancerous changes. It is a central component for healthy vision; vitamin A nourishes cells in various structures of the eye and is required for the transduction of light into nerve signals in the retina. It is required during pregnancy, stimulating normal growth and development of the fetus by influencing genes that determine the sequential growth of organs in embryonic development. It influences the function and development of sperm, ovaries and placenta and is a vital component of the reproductive process.

 

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin that the body requires to break down carbohydrates, fat and protein. Every cell of the body requires vitamin B1 to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Vitamin B1 is also essential for the proper functioning of nerve cells.

 

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin that helps the body process amino acids and fats, activate vitamin B6 and folic acid, and helps convert carbohydrates to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant.

c (Niacin): Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration and helps release the energy in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It also supports proper circulation and healthy skin, functioning of the nervous system, and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids. It is used in the synthesis of sex hormones, treating schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and as a memory-enhancer.
Nicotinic acid (but not nicotinamide) supplementation improves the blood cholesterol profile, and has been used to flush the body of organic poisons, such as certain insecticides. People report more mental alertness when this vitamin is in sufficient supply.
A shortage of niacin may be indicated with symptoms such as canker sores, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, halitosis, headaches, indigestion, insomnia, limb pains, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, muscular weakness, skin eruptions, and inflammation.

 

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin involved in the Kreb energy production cycle and is needed for the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Vitamin B5 also triggers the adrenal glands, is essential in transporting and releasing energy from fats, and enables the synthesis of cholesterol, vitamin D, and steroid hormones. Pantethine � a vitamin B5 byproduct � has been shown to lower cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.

 

Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B complex. Vitamin B6 plays a role in the synthesis of antibodies by the immune system, which are needed to fight many diseases. It helps maintain normal nerve function and also acts in the formation of red blood cells. Vitamin B6 is also required for the chemical reactions needed to digest proteins. The higher the protein intake, the more the need for vitamin B6.
Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause neurological disorders and numbness. Deficiency of this vitamin can cause mouth and tongue sores, irritability, confusion, and depression. Vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in the United States.

 

Vitamin B9 (Folate): Vitamin B9, also known as Folic acid, is a B vitamin necessary for cell replication and growth. Folic acid helps form building blocks of DNA, which holds the body genetic information, and building blocks of RNA, needed for protein synthesis. Folic acid is most important, then, for rapidly growing tissues, such as those of a fetus, and rapidly regenerating cells, like red blood cells and immune cells. Folic acid deficiency results in an anemia that responds quickly to folic acid supplements.
The need for folic acid increases considerably during pregnancy. Deficiencies of folic acid during pregnancy are associated with low birth weight and an increased incidence of neural tube defects in infants. Most doctors, many other healthcare professionals, recommend that all women of childbearing age supplement with 400 mcg per day of folic acid. Such supplementation may protect against the formation of neural tube defects during the time between conception and when pregnancy is discovered.

 

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine): Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin needed for normal nerve cell activity, DNA replication, and production of the mood-affecting substance SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine). Vitamin B12 acts with folic acid and vitamin B6 to control homocysteine levels. An excess of homocysteine has been linked to an increased risk of coronary disease, stroke and other diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes fatigue.

 

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble vitamin that has a wide range of functions in the human body.

One of vitamin C important functions is acting as an antioxidant, protecting LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage. When LDL is damaged the cholesterol appears to lead to heart disease, but vitamin C acts as an important antioxidant protector of LDL. Vitamin C may also protect against heart disease by reducing the stiffness of arteries and the tendency of platelets to coagulate in the vein.

The antioxidant properties also protect smokers from the harmful effects of free radicals. Small doses of Vitamin C taken by nonsmokers before being exposed to smoke have been shown to reduce the free radical damage and LDL cholesterol oxidation associated with exposure to cigarette smoke.

Vitamin C has a range of additional functions. Its is needed to make collagen, a substance that strengthens many parts of the body, such as muscles and blood vessels, and plays important roles in healing and as an antihistamine. Vitamin C also aids in the formation of liver bile which helps to detoxify alcohol and other substances. Evidence indicates that vitamin C levels in the eye decrease with age and that vitamin C supplements prevent this decrease, lowering the risk of developing cataracts.

Vitamin C has been reported to reduce activity of the enzyme, aldose reductase, which theoretically helps protect people with diabetes. It may also protect the body against accumulation or retention of the toxic mineral, lead. People with recurrent boils (furunculosis) may have defects in white blood cell function that are correctable with vitamin C supplementation.

 

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol): Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that helps maintain blood levels of calcium, by increasing absorption from food and reducing urinary calcium loss. Both functions help keep calcium in the body and therefore spare the calcium that is stored in bones. Vitamin D may also transfer calcium from the bone to the blood, which may actually weaken bones. Though the overall effect of vitamin D on the bones is complicated, some vitamin D is certainly necessary for healthy bones and teeth.

Vitamin D is also produced by the human body during exposure to the ultraviolet rays of the Sun. However, seasonal changes, latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog and sunscreen can all affect UV exposure. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in northern latitudes, making Vitamin D supplementation more important for residents of those areas.

Vitamin D plays a role in immunity and blood cell formation and also helps cells differentiate process that may reduce the risk of cancer. From various other studies, researchers have hypothesized that vitamin D may protect people from multiple sclerosis, autoimmune arthritis, and juvenile diabetes. Vitamin D is also necessary to maintain adequate blood levels of insulin. Vitamin D receptors have been found in the pancreas, and some evidence suggests that supplements may increase insulin secretion for some people with adult-onset diabetes.

 

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body, such as LDL cholesterol (the �bad� cholesterol), from damage. Several studies have reported that supplements of natural vitamin E help reduce the risk of heart attacks.

Vitamin E also plays some role in the body ability to process glucose. Some trials suggest that vitamin E may help in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

In the last decade, the functions of vitamin E have been further clarified. In addition to its antioxidant functions, vitamin E has now been shown to directly affect inflammation, blood cell regulation, connective tissue growth and genetic control of cell division.

 

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone): Vitamin K is necessary for proper bone growth and blood coagulation. Vitamin K accomplishes this by helping the body transport calcium.

 

FatsFatty acids are individual isomers of what we more commonly call "fats". There are potentially hundreds of different fatty acids, but just a few dozen that are commonly found in the foods we eat. Dietary fat is classified as either saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated, based on the number of double bonds that exist in the fat's molecular structure

 

Saturated Fat: A saturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Diets high in saturated fat have been shown to correlate with an increased incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Dehydrogenation converts saturated fats to unsaturated fats, while hydrogenation accomplishes the reverse.

Common saturated fats include butter, lard, palm oil, coconut oil, cottonseed oil and Palm Kernel Oil. Saturated fat is found in dairy products, especially cream and cheese and in meat, as well as in many prepared foods. Some studies suggest replacing saturated fats in the diet with unsaturated fats will increase one's ratio of HDL to LDL serum cholesterol.

 

Saturated Fats:

  Capric Acid
  Lauric Acid
  Myristic Acid

  Palmitic Acid
  Margaric Acid
  Stearic Acid

  Arachidic Acid
  Behenic Acid
  Lignoceric Acid

 

 

Unsaturated Fat: An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. Such fat molecules are monounsaturated if each contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if each contain more than one.

Hydrogenation converts unsaturated fats to saturated fats, while dehydrogenation accomplishes the reverse. Unsaturated fats tend to melt at lower temperatures than saturated fats, which tend to be solid at room temperature.

Both kinds of unsaturated fat can replace saturated fat in the diet. Substituting unsaturated fats for saturated fats helps to lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood.

 

 
Monounsaturated Fats

  Myristoleic Acid
  Palmitoleic Acid
  Oleic Acid

  Gadoleic Acid
  Erucic Acid
  Nervonic Acid

 

 

 
Polyunsaturated Fat

  Linoleic Acid
  Linolenic Acid
  Alpha-Linolenic Acid

  Gamma-Linolenic Acid
  Parinaric Acid
  Arachidonic Acid

  Timnodonic Acid
  Brassic Acid
  Clupanodonic Acid

 

 

The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954: An Act to make provisions for the prevention of Adulteration of Food. Be it enacted by parliament in the Fifth Year of the Republic of India. The Act extends to the whole of India and came into force on 1st June 1955

DEFINITIONS
WHAT IS ADULTERATED FOOD?

An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated -

  • if the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser or which it purports to be;
  • if the article contains any substance affecting its quality or of it is so processed as to injuriously affect its nature, substance or quality;
  • if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or partly for the article, or any constituent of the article has been wholly or partly abstracted from it, so as to affecting its quality or of it is so processed as to injuriously affect its nature, substance or quality;
  •  
WHEN ARE FOODS MISBRANDED

An article of food shall be deemed to be misbranded-

  • if it is an imitation of, or is a substitute for, or resembles in a manner likely to deceive, another article of food, and is not conspicuously labelled so as to indicate its true character,
  • if it is falsely stated to be the product of any place or country,
  • if it is sold by a name which belongs to another article of food,
  • if it is so coloured, flavoured, coated, powdered or polished as to conceal any damage to the article or to appear of greater value than it really is,
  •  
Common Adulerants / Contaminants in food

Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form. Prohibited substances are either added or partly or wholly substituted. The contamination/adulteration in food is done either for financial gain or due to carelessness and lack in proper hygienic condition of processing, storing, transportation and marketing. This ultimately results that the consumer is either cheated or often become victim of diseases. However, adequate precautions taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of such produce can make him alert to avoid procurement of such food. It is equally important for the consumer to know the common adulterants and their effect on health.